Regina v Latif; Regina v Shahzad

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Regina v Latif; Regina v Shahzad: HL 23 Jan 1996

Published on 20th March 2019
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Joseph S R de Saram (JSRDS)

Information Security Architect / Intelligence Analyst / Computer Scientist / Human Rights Activist / COMSEC / SIGINT / TSCM
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Joseph S R de Saram provides thought-provoking insights into Military Intelligence and Law Enforcement, how they operate beyond (as opposed to above) the law, and how their various antics foreseeably lead to the destruction of Fundamental Human Rights. Updates are in progress so check back regularly – verified articles end with . Please feel free to LIKE and SHARE

Regina v Latif; Regina v Shahzad: HL 23 Jan 1996

References: Gazette 07-Feb-1996, Times 23-Jan-1996, Independent 23-Jan-1996, [1996] 1 WLR 104, [1996] 2 Cr App R 92, [1996] UKHL 16, [1996] 1 All ER 353, [1996] Crim LR 92

References: Gazette 07-Feb-1996, Times 23-Jan-1996, Independent 23-Jan-1996, [1996] 1 WLR 104, [1996] 2 Cr App R 92, [1996] UKHL 16, [1996] 1 All ER 353, [1996] Crim LR 92

Links: Bailii

Coram: Lord Steyn, Lord Keith of Kinkel, Lord Jauncey of Tullichettle, Lord Mustill, Lord Hoffmann

Ratio: The defendant had been lured into the UK by the unlawful acts of customs officers. He claimed abuse of process.

Held: The category of cases in which the abuse of process principles can be applied is not closed. A customs officer committing an offence alongside the defendant did not necessarily make thereby make a prosecution of the defendant an abuse of process. The question was whether the behaviour was ‘so unworthy or shameful that it was an affront to the public conscience to allow the prosecution to proceed.’ ‘In this case the issue is whether, despite the fact that a fair trial was possible, the judge ought to have stayed the criminal proceedings on broader considerations of the integrity of the criminal justice system. The law is settled. Weighing countervailing considerations of policy and justice, it is for the judge in the exercise of his discretion to decide whether there has been an abuse of process, which amounts to an affront to the public conscience and requires the criminal proceedings to be stayed: R v Horseferry Road Magistrates’ Court, ex p. Bennett . . The speeches in Bennett conclusively establish that proceedings may be stayed in the exercise of the judge’s discretion not only where a fair trial is impossible but also where it would be contrary to the public interest in the integrity of the criminal justice system that trial should take place. An infinite variety of cases could arise.’ As to whether the chain of causation had been broken: ‘The free, deliberate and informed intervention of a second person, who intends to exploit the situation created by the first, but is not acting in concert with him is held to relieve the first actor of criminal responsibility.’

Statutes: Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 78
Jurisdiction: England and Wales
This case cites:

  • Appeal from – Regina v Latif, Regina v Shahzad CACD (Times 17-Mar-94, Gazette 11-May-94, (1994) 15 Cr App R (S) 864)
    The acts of an agent provocateur give no defence under English Law. The remedy lies in the Judge’s discretion to exclude evidence unfairly obtained. Conduct which leads to the importation of drugs is ‘fraudulent evasion’. The appellants were . .
  • Cited – Regina v Horseferry Road Magistrates’ Court, ex Parte Bennett (No 1) HL (Independent 01-Jul-93, Times 25-Jun-93, [1993] 3 WLR 90, [1994] 1 AC 42, Bailii, [1993] UKHL 10, (1993) 3 All ER 138, (1994) 98 Cr App R 114)
    The defendant had been brought to the UK in a manner which was in breach of extradition law. He had, in effect, been kidnapped by the authorities.
    Held: The High Court may look at how an accused person was brought within the jurisdiction when . .
  • Cited – Director of Public Prosecutions v Stonehouse HL ([1978] AC 55, [1977] 2 All ER 909, (1977) 65 Cr App R 192)
    The defendant had been charged with attempting to obtain property by deception by fabricating his death by drowning in the sea off Miami in Florida. The final act alleged to constitute the offence occurred outside the jurisdiction of the English . .
  • Cited – Somchai Liangsiriprasert v Government of the United States of America PC ([1991] 1 AC 225, (1991) 92 Cr App R 77, Bailii, [1990] UKPC 31)
    (Hong Kong) Application was made for the defendant’s extradition from Hong Kong to the USA. The question was whether a conspiracy entered into outside Hong Kong with the intention of committing the criminal offence of trafficking in drugs in Hong . .

(This list may be incomplete)
This case is cited by:

  • Cited – Mullen, Regina (on the Application of) v Secretary of State for the Home Department HL (House of Lords, [2004] UKHL 18, Bailii, Times 03-May-04, [2005] 1 AC 1, [2004] 3 All ER 65, [2004] 2 WLR 1140, 16 BHRC 469, [2004] UKHRR 745)
    The claimant had been imprisoned, but his conviction was later overturned. He had been a victim of a gross abuse of executive power. The British authorities had acted in breach of international law and had been guilty of ‘a blatant and extremely . .
  • Cited – Regina (on the Application of Mullen) v The Secretary of State for the Home Department CA (Times 31-Dec-02, Gazette 13-Mar-03, Bailii, [2002] EWCA Civ 1882, [2003] QB 993)
    The applicant had been unlawfully taken from Zimbabwe, then tried and sentenced in the UK. His conviction was set aside as unsafe, but he had been refused damages. He appealed.
    Held: There was no substantial criticism of the trial itself, but . .
  • Cited – A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, Mahmoud Abu Rideh Jamal Ajouaou v Secretary of State for the Home Department CA (Times 05-Oct-04, Bailii, [2004] EWCA Civ 1123, [2005] 1 WLR 414)
    The claimants had each been detained without trial for more than two years, being held as suspected terrorists. They were free leave to return to their own countries, but they feared for their lives if returned. They complained that the evidence . .
  • Cited – Regina v J HL (House of Lords, Bailii, [2004] UKHL 42, (2005) 1 AC 562, [2004] 3 WLR 1019, [2005] 1 Cr App R 19, [2005] 1 All ER 1)
    The defendant was to have been accused of having unlawful sexual intercourse with a girl under 16. Proceedings could not be brought, because the allegation was more than a year old, and he was instead accused of indecent assault, but on the same . .
  • Cited – Kennedy v Regina CACD (Bailii, [2005] EWCA Crim 685, Times 06-Apr-05, [2005] 1 WLR 2159)
    The court considered when it was appropriate to find someone guilty of manslaughter where that person has been involved in the supply of a Class A controlled drug, which is then self administered by the person to whom it is supplied, and the . .
  • Cited – A and others v Secretary of State for the Home Department (No 2) HL (Bailii, [2005] UKHL 71, House of Lords, Times 09-Dec-05, [2005] 3 WLR 1249, [2006] 2 AC 221, [2006] 1 All ER 575, 19 BHRC 441, [2006] UKHRR 225, [2006] HRLR)
    The applicants had been detained following the issue of certificates issued by the respondent that they posed a terrorist threat. They challenged the decisions of the Special Immigration Appeals Commission saying that evidence underlying the . .
  • Cited – Director of Public Prosecutions v Wood; Director of Public Prosecutions v McGillicuddy Admn (Bailii, [2006] EWHC 32 (Admin), Times 08-Feb-06)
    Each defendant sought disclosure of materials concerning the intoximeter instruments, having been charged with driving with excess alcohol. The defendants said that the meters were inaccurate and that the manufacturers were in effect part of the . .
  • Cited – Christian and others v The Queen PC (Bailii, [2006] UKPC 47, Times 15-Nov-06)
    (The Pitcairn Islands) The defendants appealed convictions for assorted sexual offences against underage girls. They denied that the laws under which they were convicted had applied to the Pitcairn Islands.
    Held: The appeals against conviction . .
  • Cited – Regina v Kennedy HL (Bailii, [2007] UKHL 38, Times 19-Oct-07, [2007] 4 All ER 1083, [2007] 3 WLR 612, [2007] Inquest LR 234, [2008] 1 Cr App Rep 19, [2008] Crim LR 222, [2008] AC 269)
    The defendant had been convicted of manslaughter. He had supplied a class A drug to a friend who then died taking it. The House was asked ‘When is it appropriate to find someone guilty of manslaughter where that person has been involved in the . .
  • Cited – Gnango, Regina v SC ([2012] 2 All ER 129, [2012] 2 WLR 17, [2012] 1 Cr App R 18, [2012] 1 AC 827, Bailii, [2011] UKSC 59, SC Summary, SC, UKSC 2010/0165, Bailii Summary)
    The prosecutor appealed against a successful appeal by the defendant against his conviction for murder. He and an opponent had engaged in a street battle using guns. His opponent had shot an innocent passer by. The court was now asked as to whether . .
  • Cited – Regina v Moore and Another CACD (Bailii, [2013] EWCA Crim 85)
    The appellants said that they had been entrapped into committing the offences of which they stood convicted. Their applications for stay on the ground of abuse of process had been rejected.
    Held: The appeal failed.
    Rix Lj said: ‘the . .
  • Cited – Regina v Moon CACD (Bailii, [2004] EWCA Crim 2872)
    The defendant, a heroin addict said that the encouragement of a police officer to supply her with a small quantity of heroin amounted to entrapment and that her prosecution should have been stayed as an abuse of process. The officer had been . .
  • Cited – Maxwell, Regina v SC (Bailii, [2010] UKSC 48, [2011] 2 Cr App Rep 31, [2011] 1 WLR 1837, SC Summary, UKSC 2010/0003, SC)
    The defendant had had his conviction for murder set aside after a finding of gross prosecutorial misconduct by the police. The Court was now asked as to the propriety of the order for a retrial. The police involved in the case had misled the CPS, . .

(This list may be incomplete)
Leading Case
Last Update: 19 March 2019
Ref: 87122

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Joseph S R de Saram (JSRDS)

Information Security Architect / Intelligence Analyst / Computer Scientist / Human Rights Activist / COMSEC / SIGINT / TSCM
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